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Rosedale Organic Citrus Farm (and B&B)

Rosedale Farm started out as a conventional citrus farm, but after a chemical mishap, farmer Keith Finnemore converted to organic. Over 12 years later it's a thriving business, and beautiful B&B spot in the Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape.

Addo, Eastern Cape

Website    Phone (+27) 42 233 0404   Mobile (+27) 83 329 8775    Email

Story by Deni Archer

A rose amongst the thorns


Rosedale Farm started out as a conventional citrus farm. Though Keith Finnemore had always wanted to farm organically, it wasn’t until one of his workers had an accident that he realised there was no other option. After stepping in to spray the orchards, Keith suffered from hallucinations and discovered he had organophosphate poisoning. It didn’t need much more thought - he promptly began researching organic conversion and looking for a market for organic citrus fruit. That was in 1998, and today Keith has a successful Ecocert certified organic citrus farm in the largely conventionally farmed Sundays River Valley (Eastern Cape), that exports to the EU.

Keith has over 25 years experience in farming. Starting out as a pharmacist he decided to go back to university in the late seventies to study agriculture, after which he worked for a parastatal until 1994, when he and his wife Nondumiso bought Rosedale Farm. After fours years of farming conventionally Keith began the conversion, and Rosedale has been organic now for over 12 years.

Organics for sustainability

The first six years were the hardest, and the last two years have been the best, Keith says. He stuck with it despite the difficulties he encountered (“I had to relearn farming”) because he understood the ecological and economic benefits that would ensure the sustainability of his product. “It just made sense”, he says.

“The biggest challenge was bringing the highly depleted soils back to health”, Keith says taking a handful of dark earth out from under one of his trees. It took him about six years to rehabilitate his soil, but once healthy there was a noticeable improvement in his trees’ resistance to pests and drought, and water requirements declined. Good soils also result in nutritionally superior fruit. After 12 years Keith is happy to say that most of the usual farming pests and problems are under biological control, meaning that the parasites and predators that were introduced to control them have found their place in the ecosystem. “The only things we worry with are red-scale and the ants”, Keith says.

Organic compared to conventional - the numbers

So how does organic citrus farming stack up to conventional in terms of numbers? Keith says that on average the gross yields are almost the same, and he's confident that current research will help them produce even more than conventional farms in the near future. The one challenge is the consumer - they demand a visually perfect, blemish-free fruit which means that organic export cartons are only a half to a third of what conventional farmers can export - even though the fruit itself is perfect on the inside. However, they get a premium price for their fruit which makes up for it.

Well, then, what’s stopping more farmers from going organic? Keith says there are barriers. For example, organic farmers rely on good marketing strategies for success, and (like most farmers) they need to make sure the middle men aren’t taking advantage of them. Since it’s not really possible to farm organically at the scale of conventional farms it’s important to collaborate with other farmers and form cooperatives that can supply the required quantities for export. Keith has joined forces with a few like-minded farmers in the valley and after “a few bumps in the road” they’ve formed the Sundays Organic Growers Association (SOGA).

The final barrier, and possibly the most important, is the stigma around organic farming. Keith says the myths about organics need to be dispelled. “You don’t need to be airy-fairy about organic farming. There is a lot of good science out there; published science. Organic farming is not anti-science.”

Where’s the money?

But are industrialised farms more financially sustainable? No, says Keith, “world over they rely on government subsidies and cheap oil.” Both these cornerstones of conventional farming are not looking too promising these days. While the organic conversion process takes time and money, the costs come down after just a few years and then it becomes far cheaper to farm organic, because you don’t need to buy expensive fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides. Your products also become a lot more valuable.

Light at the end of the supply chain

Keith is a pioneer in organic citrus farming in South Africa, with a wealth of knowledge and an open door to anyone willing to learn. He welcomes any farmers who want to make the switch to talk to him, learn from him and reap the wisdom of his labours.

With all the conflicting arguments out there about the viability of organic farming, it was good to hear a success story straight from the horse’s mouth. Keith’s words make sense and his orchards are the proof of them. He and his fellow SOGA farmers are making progress in their field. Yes, there’s work to be done, but the future of farming looks brighter with guys like these around. It's only a pity that as South African consumers, we can't buy these beautiful fruits here!

Rosedale Organic Farm also run a charming bed and breakfast lodge. Nondumiso runs this and can be contacted on +27 (0)83 433 0822 for reservations. A one hour farm tour can also be organised.

Keith shows us how a balanced ecosystem works. Here, a nitrogen-fixing bacteria (azotobacter) colonised in the orchard. It gives the trees nitrogen, while the trees give it carbohydrates - a symbiotic relationship.


Healthy soils are key to healthy plants in an organic system. It took six years to rehabilitate the soils at Rosedale Farm, after being depleted by many years of conventional farming.


The kitchen of any organic farm - the compost heaps become food for a healthy soil.


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Farm Management students' excursion

by Luvuyo Nqabelele  |   11 September 2015 09:54 AM   |   0 replies

Good day sir/madam

I am Luvuyo Vincent Nqabelele, a Farm management lecturer from Ikhala TVET college in Lady Frere. This year we have the first group of N6 students meaning that they are exiting. The college wants to expose these students on the practical side of managing the farm.

On behalf of the college I humbly request you to help us in exposing them to a working environment and also show them what is expected from them in the working environment.
We want them to be exposed on the following aspects, how to manage the farm, how to maintain the assets and machinery, how is human resource managed, how to manage finances and also how is data handled.

Please reply ASAP so that we arranged a date and other logistics.

Your cooperation will be highly appreciated.


Organic citrus farming research

by sinikile Nosasa  |   07 June 2013 08:55 PM   |   0 replies

I would like to know about organic citrus farming as compare with conventional farming,i am currently a student at NMMU Saasveld,George.iam willing to know about the citrus growth cycle,fruit development and physiology if don`t use hormones like gebellerine,cytokinin etc?

Great story

by Craig Ackermann  |   09 July 2012 08:17 AM   |   2 replies

I like the images of the farm and soil. Do you know what he added to his soil by way of mineral supplements ie rock/volcanic dust or rock phosphate? Thank-you!

by Deni Archer  |   09 July 2012 08:54 AM

Hi Craig, Not sure what the specifics are, but I am sure that Keith would be more than happy to give you some tips over email!

If you learn something interesting, please share it on our forums!


by Keith Finnemore  |   28 September 2012 03:22 PM

Hello Craig,
Do you want the long answer, or the short one?
We have a mineral imbalance on the farm - too much magnesium, and not enough calcium. So, the first step is to rebalance the soil with calcitic lime, and natural gypsum.
Next step is to add as much organic matter as possible - preferably compost, so that you bring the microbial life in.
Lastly, we add rock dust.
There is no need for us to add rock phosphate - our soils have a fair amount of it - and many of the microbes we add have the ability to make the phosphate available to plants.
Contact me if you want more details.

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